Wednesday, May 31, 2006

Teen Drivers Take Risks With DWI

AAA - "drivers younger than 21 made up 5 percent of all drivers but were involved in 15 percent of all drug- or alcohol-related fatal crashes" in NY State in 2004.

D&C Article

Tuesday, May 30, 2006

College Entrance Heats Up

Local Colleges Beseiged With Applications

"You're now turning away students who are very qualified to be successful," said John Young , director of admission at Hobart and William Smith. "They could do the work here; we just don't have the room for them. Five years ago, we were admitting most of those students."

D&C Article

Monday, May 29, 2006

Mom To Sue School For Failing To Deny Internet Access

MySpace.Com Access Helped Daughter Run Away

D&C Article

Sunday, May 28, 2006

County Property Tax Levy Up 33% From 2000-2005

Skyrocketing Levies Affecting Home Buyers

Anne Miller: "Each local government controls the contracts that they negotiate and sign with their union employees, and if you don't get a grip on those, and you continue to give away the bank in salary and health care benefits, you're never going to control your local property taxes."

D&C Article

Friday, May 26, 2006

Olympia HS Pays Tribute To Veterans & Heroes

Thursday ceremony included an American Legion Honor Guard 21-gun salute and a plaque honoring Lance Cpl. Brian Schramm was added to the school's Alumni Wall of Fame.

D&C Article

Tuesday, May 23, 2006

Final 2020 Summit Meeting Open To Community

All interested community members may attend the final 2020 Summit meeting, scheduled for 6:30 p.m., Thursday, June 8 in the Apollo Middle School cafeteria.

New York State School Boards Association representative Donna Clement will lead the discussion, which will center on two key questions:

What is the vision of a successful graduate in 2020?
How do we build a cooperative community to create a productive educational environment?

Monday, May 22, 2006

Editorial Suggests Greece Embrace New Graduation Venue

D&C Editorial

Sunday, May 21, 2006

BOE Plans Math Study Session

Tuesday May 23 at 7PM

Exec. Session planned at 5:30PM

(Despite our efforts, they till don't have the Agenda Approval scheduled for BEFORE the Exec. Session begins!!)


Parents: For College Admissions Advice Check Out This Website/Blog:
Schools Require Background Checks, Many Rules During Prom Season

D&C Article

Didn't Greece Already Have Its Proms??

Saturday, May 20, 2006

Inadequate Aid Lowers Graduation Rates, Raises Taxes In NYS

Study shows that "districts that graduate 90 percent of their students spend an average of $5,000 more per pupil than districts that graduate fewer than 50 percent. "

D&C Article

Friday, May 19, 2006

All Greece Graduations To Be At Athena

Upset Results Over Seating, Rival School Feel

Deborah Leh -- "The driver behind the decision was really that after 30-some years, we now have this beautiful performing arts center in the district that we are able to use for a variety of productions."

Student, Tom Hadley -- "It's like graduating at a different high school."

D&C Article

Thursday, May 18, 2006

Putting the Past Behind

It's Time To Look Forward, Make Plans, Create Change

The election is over. The remaining signs are soggy, the campaign funds have been expended & the mailbox ads are in the recycling bin. What's done is done, but as always, much more needs doing.

As redundant as it might be, elections do mark a "fresh start." That's one of the good things about them, no matter which "side" you're on. They represent hope that the future will somehow be made better.

To that end, we want to steer away from the solely negative topics that tend to overtake the discussion whenever there's a hotly contested election. As another school year winds down, let's try for some constructive criticism, if we must criticize. Let's attempt some brain-storming in an effort to resolve some of this district's troubles. Let's celebrate some of the good things that teachers and students have accomplished with academics, despite the politically charged backdrop they worked in during the past year.

This doesn't mean that problems, differences of opinion and issues that beg for attention aren't to be discussed. It just means it's time to put some balance into the mix before all of us become depressed enough to require intervention by mental health experts like Dr. Phil!

Please humor us by writing about something upbeat, something funny, something amazing related to our schools. We don't want to edit comments but frankly, we're tired of the bickering and bashing. It drags everyone down.

To get things started, we want to thank a very caring and dedicated elementary school teacher who is retiring this June. Her many years of service have touched the lives of hundreds of students and their familys. She makes the effort to get to know each of her students as individuals, so that they can grow all their skills during their time spent in her classroom. She is a truly amazing, energetic role model, mom and teacher.


Wednesday, May 17, 2006

To The "Stylish Soccer Moms"

Anonymous said...
Since you've forgotten.To the stylish moms:You boasted that you always get the information and documents you request if not by the board or clerk but somehow.When did you get the Berry report?

All Monroe County Budgets Pass

Boily: "We ran a clean, issue-oriented campaign and are pleased at the outcome."

Strehle: "It's an election and that's what happened. This is not sour grapes, but there is no way we could match them sign for sign and mailing for mailing."

Walsh: "... pleased the budget and a proposition for bus spending passed. He said the election winners would be included in the district's ongoing search for a new superintendent."

D&C Article

Tuesday, May 16, 2006


The Tribe Has Spoken --

Boily, Hauer & VanOrman Win Seats

Boily -- 5992
Hauer -- 4865
VanOrman -- 4651
Leary -- 3539
Piccarreto -- 3349
Latus -- 3192
Hurwitz -- 1901


OBERG: "Not unlike Baghdad, GCSD has pockets of “insurgency” that must yet be rooted out! A wholesome work environment is months, if not years, off!"

Response: Anonymous said...
Mr. Oberg,

I am extremely offended by your comparison of politics in Greece to the important work being done by our military men and women overseas. Each and every day, my family, like thousands of others across our country, listens to the news reports of how many troops were lost that day in Iraq. We pray that our phone does not ring with devastating news about my brother-in-law who is serving. Don't trivialize the sacrifice that families across our country are making every day with our sons and daughters fighting a hostile insurgency. Don’t compare it to a work environment that YOU feel is difficult. That is shameful.
5/16/2006 1:21 PM


You've debated the issues. Shared your opinions. The campaigning is done. There's only one thing left to do.

****** GET OUT & VOTE!! ******

******** JUST DO IT !! ********

Today's D&C -- "The attributes of Hurwitz, Hauer and Boily will be needed as the search for a new superintendent gets under way."

Monday, May 15, 2006

SCATS Recommends:

*** Bullet Vote Hurwitz *** -- Lever 4
*** Penny To$$ On Budget ***

Our 2 Cents On The Budget & Bus Proposal

The budget is something we're having trouble supporting ... or not as the case may be. We've considered all the arguments and found there are numerous merits to either viewpoint. So, we've decided it might be best if each voter takes 2 pennies to the polls with them on Tuesday. Before pulling any levers, toss both coins. If they both come up heads, vote "YES" on the budget & proposition. If both come up tails, vote "NO" on the budget & proposition. If they come up split, vote "NO" on the budget & "YES" on the buses. To make it easy to remember, feel free to copy, paste & print our cheatsheet below :)


Lever #4 -- Phillip Hurwitz

Double Coin Toss Method--
2 Heads = "YES" on Budget & Proposition
2 Tails = "NO" on Budget & Proposition
Split (1 each) = Vote "NO" on Budget & "YES" on Proposition

Sunday, May 14, 2006


Tuesday's Direction Uncertain

Bev Strehle: "...supporting or rejecting a budget is the only way voters can support or reject the direction the district is going in and the way it is being administered."

Bob Mueller: "... empathizes with voters who vote no because they're fed up with ever-increasing school spending and taxes."

D&C ARTICLE by Meaghan McDermott
Charles Schwab -- Wants Access To Bail Money To Survive

Working Part-Time As Delivery Truck Driver;
Prosecutors Say He Should Live More Austerely

D&C Article by Gary Craig

Saturday, May 13, 2006

Endorsements & The Ad Wars

Who Spent More? Does It Matter?

Depending upon what part of Greece you live in, your mailbox may be suffering beneath an eye-opening stack of campaign literature ... or NOT! Some parts of town have barely been remembered. Other areas seem to be undergoing an onslaught that ranges from the "ho-hum" mundane to the slick, glossy expensive type that looks oh-so-professionally done.

What have you received? Is it effective? Was it "honest?" Has it impacted your decision on how to cast your votes next Tuesday?

Thursday, May 11, 2006


Will One Slate Of Three Win The Election?
Results Appear Mixed So Far

If the online chatter about which candidates people intend to vote for is any indicator of the election outcome next Tuesday, then it appears that a Chinese restaurant style menu of "winners" may be elected. With only 5 days remaining, Boily, Leary & Hurwitz seem to be drawing lots of attention, all for different reasons. Will you be bullet-voting Hurwitz as we've suggested? Will you back a slate of three? Or are you planning to split your votes between the slates? Tell us which levers you will pull and why.

Voting "No" On The Budget Is On Many Minds

Anonymous said...
Vote NO on May 16th. It wont make that much of a difference to taxes, but it will to employees and ultimately effect our students. Think taxpayers....the only reason CARE is endorsing it is because it keeps the tax rate where they want it. It has nothing to do with education. CARE wants the best education at the least possible cost ONLY, and this is already being done. Id like to see the studies has done CARE to say this isnt happening? Have they done a position analysis on the jobs at the District? ... Just think of the paperwork that CARE and Hubbard alone have cost the District. CARE needs to look again at how much Greece spends per pupil compared to other Districts. 5/10/2006 1:44 PM

Anonymous said...
Teamsters are wrong, very wrong, to endorse LLP. LLP is a BOE favorite, the BOE's budget cuts many Teamster positions. I'm a Teamster who will not vote for LLP or the budget. I will vote the Boily group and 'NO' for the budget.Joe you are the most dsyfunctional member of the BOE. Bob M you are as viscious and slanderous as Joe. 5/11/2006 7:38 AM

Anonymous said...
I feel that no one wants to publicly support this budget because the budget is a bad one. However, the alternative would be worse. So, I hear people saying privately that they don't want to support this budget, but they will because it is the lesser of two evils. CARE doesn't have to say anything since the tax ramifications of the budget passing or not passing are basically equal. Why would they say anything and risk alienating anyone? If CARE says that they support this budget, they will look terrible next year around voting time when everyone has had time to experience the cuts that this budget dictates. If CARE says that they do not support this budget, it will appear that they are not supporting the board majority and their attempt to whittle away at our school district. They only speak up when it is advantageous to their agenda, not to advise us of what is best for our schools. 5/10/2006 9:17 AM

Anonymous said...
Does anyone know who or what group left "Vote NO on the budget" flyers in some of the Flynn Rd neighborhoods? It's kinda like Al Qaida .... the message gets sent, but no one was seen delivering it. 5/10/2006 7:29 PM

Wednesday, May 10, 2006

Loyalties Revealed?

Political Mailings Send Many Messages, Some Confusing

CARE's Link to Clear

Anonymous said...
... CARE has endorsed the budget. How wonderful for us.Now we know how to vote.We are so stupid otherwise.The CARE mailing came out. It said to vote for LLP. But it did not say that CARE endorsed them. And Ms Strehle did not say that CARE endorsed them last night. Only the budget. Why have they abandoned them?

The mailing only has the CARE return address to identify it as coming from CARE but there is no endorsement from CARE. Also the card does not endorse the budget and it does not say to vote yes on the budget. Lots of endorsement power there.
The Boily family have a charming glossy 2 sided big mailing. Very well done... Where is 2680 Ridge Rd west suite 219-B Knowing property rental and leasing in Greece this is not cheap. Citizens for Excellence and Committee for Education must have mega bucks. cha Ching. Also they did not support the budget. it would have been so easy to squeeze in a vote yes on the budget. They did not.So no candidates openly support the budget on their mailings.
Also the CARE mailing had a tiny invitation to visit the Cagwin web site at the bottom. No connection there. NOT!
Bullet vote for Hurwitz. Power to the people. Lever 4.
5/10/2006 6:49 AM

PASSN Meeting Planned

Parent Advocates for Students with Special Needs
Please join us for an open forum.
May 11, 2006; 7-9 PM
The Church of Jesus of Latter-day Saints
1250 English Road
This is the last presentation until September or October. We will update our calendar with days, times, and topics as they become available.

Monday, May 08, 2006


Make your vote count -- Lever 4

** Bullet Vote Phillip Hurwitz **

for Greece BOE on May 16th

HURWITZ -- Lever 4

7PM; Apollo; BOE Meeting Room

Budget Hearing -- 6:30PM; 3 minutes/speaker

BOE Regular Monthly Meeting To Follow
Topics include: Legal Update on EEOC Cases
& School Report Card


Sunday, May 07, 2006


Only $6400 Separates Program Component In
Proposed Budget vs. Contigency Plan

Does voter approval of this budget really matter?

GCSD Budget Info Sheet

About Austerity ... ??
"Has anyone heard what will happen if the budget is voted down? In the past an austerity budget meant no changes. If that is true for this vote, voters need to get out and vote 'NO'. That way we can keep the 10 million plus in the budget and all the staff." 5/07/2006 4:03 PM

Thursday, May 04, 2006

Joe'$ Loo$e Tongue May Co$t Taxpayer$

Moscato Points Finger At Meg!!
Will She Make Us Pay???

Moscato Regarding the Donlon Case - " However, the Board, by a vote of the majority, reserves the right to request the superintendent to overturn a personnel matter deemed to be unfair and not in the best interests of all concerned. Such was the case last August when the former administration failed to negotiate a settlement with Mrs. Donlon as directed by the Board. Hence, the ongoing legal mess that now confronts the district."
Mr. Moscato ~~
The "owners of the district" want answers!

Anonymous said...
Joe Moscato amazes me, and I will use his name as I am not saying anything disparaging.I am amazed that certain board members find it acceptable to bully citizens, some that even helped to vote them into office.To use words of his running mate, "you are spitting on the owners of the district" sir.As for Mary. Might it be resolved soon because her charges will be thrown out without any merit?As for other topics of interest, what about the Director of Labor Relations. Who will that be? Have they been selected?What will happen if the budget does not pass in two weeks?Please answer the questions posed by the "owners of the district."

Lisa Chatham
I am in the book Joe. 5/04/2006 5:38 PM

Anonymous said...
Joe that wasn't an invitation to call, just so that you knew I was a person, as if others who type aren't. I really don't want you contacting me personally.
5/04/2006 5:39 PM


Apollo School; 3rd Floor; 7-9PM
in the BOE Meeting ROOM

Possible Topics May Include:

Catholic/Private vs. Public Schools - Where do candidates' kids attend?

Special Education - Are we beefing up these programs at the expense of "regular education?"

Board Member Ethics/Behavior - What qualities work better on a team?

The Budget & Proposition - Are we getting what the kids need in this budget?

Superintendent Search - What would new board members contribute?

Middle School Math Program - Is it working?

Teachers' Salaries/Contracts - What do we need to do differently in the future to reign in the costs & still attract highly qualified teachers?

Lawyers/legal fees/lawsuits - Where do we stand on the EEOC suits & other litigation?

Teacher Improvement Plans - How will we handle this in the future?

Wednesday, May 03, 2006

What's In the Budget? What's In A Bio?

Think About What's NOT Said,
As Well As What IS

With only two weeks remaining until Budget Vote/BOE Election Day, the facts about the candidates and the proposed budget and proposition are beginning to emerge. Former Greece BOE member (continued thorn in the district's side!) George Hubbard contends the budget proposal numbers presented to the community "hide" the truth and that a school district mailing uses a "half truth number" related to the bus proposition. His concerns are spelled out in grueling detail on the greeceschool. com website.

That site also links to some biographical information and photos three BOE candidates (the CARE slate though no public endorsement has yet been made) chose to post about themselves. So far two of those bios seem to be coming back to haunt the candidate who posted it.

First, there is Mr. James Leary, a Greece policeman who states he is married and has two school-aged children. His resume details his work history for the last 20 years. He provides us with an impressive array of past and current community organizations he has worked with voluntarily and/or professionally. What he apparently "forgot" to mention is that his kids do not attend public schools in Greece. We're sure that was just a slight oversight :)

Second, there is Ms. Carla Piccarreto, who tells us she has three boys. Like Leary, she lists her numerous involvements, mostly with school district related groups. While she does tell us something about her educational background, she makes no mention at all of any employment history. Because of a few postings in our "Comments" concerning her "career, " we decided to Google her name. The search results seem to indicate that she is currently - or was very recently - employed in an "alternative medicine" type field. (Thank you to the person who posted those web addresses we checked into!) Her testimonial witness to the relief magnetic insoles and mattress pads have brought to her autistic son and her sleep-deprived family was an eyebrow-raising read. Apparently, she was so impressed by their effectiveness, she became a sales rep for these and similar products. Again, we're sure this is just another detail the candidate "forgot" to mention in their bio :)

No wonder the other candidates won't post bios about their individual backgrounds. We can only imagine what they may "forget" to tell us, too :)

Tuesday, May 02, 2006

Seven BOE Candidates Finally Speak Out

Each Gives Their Views On District's Hurdles


On Issue Of Hiring New Superintendent:

Hurwitz -- "I don't see why our consultants couldn't look outside academia for a superintendent and look to industry, to medicine, science or law. It's outside of the box, but not off the reservation."

Latus -- "We need someone with openness, who respects all members of the community and has a sense of fairness."

Hauer -- New superintendent and board must "work to change the negativity in the district. People need to understand why decisions are being made."

Piccarreto -- "In a district this big, we're going to have issues but it's all about how to rectify it without a class action. We need someone who will put out the fires before they get big."

Leary -- "Let's start out with a new superintendent and a clean slate and get to the task of giving all of our children (the) best quality education we can afford."

Boily -- "A challenge will be getting everyone involved in the district, from the staff, both professional and support, to parents to the community at large to students: everyone should be listened to."

VanOrman -- The next Supt. "needs to be able to move us forward. The taxpayers and the community have to make the commitment and take responsibility for how they are going to work with the superintendent. Are we going to keep dredging up things that happened in the past? We shouldn't forget, but we need to let go of them in order to move forward."

Monday, May 01, 2006

Is Greece Ready To Make the Leap From "Go Meg" To "Go Nads?"

The Idea Gains Momemtum?

Anonymous said...
Greece would be lucky to have "Go Nads" as a Super. That is funny!!

He is an outstanding individual who was able to weather the years, with Walts and KC. It shows what a quality individual he is as he was not driven out of the district as many individuals were shown the door by Walts/KC.It is also interesting to note that KC hired and promoted females. Don was passed over for many promotions during the Walts-KC era. It didn't take Dr. Kehoe long to recognize Don N.'s skills as she promoted him to Deputy Super over KC's choice of Lias Buckshaw.Don stayed in Greece while I am sure he could of had a promotion in another district. This speaks to his loyally and dedication to Greece.Why is it in other districts the male/female staff ratios is very different than Greece? In Webster they have many male administrators and classroom teachers. In Greece many boys come to elementary and some middle schools and the only males they even see is a man cutting grass and mopping floors. They don't even see a professional educational male. There are no male role models.
EnjoyDoug Skeet 5/01/2006 8:27 PM

Meeting Reminders ...

PTA Council Budget Meeting - Tuesday May 2nd; 6:30 PM;
Olympia HS Library

Input On Supt. Search Criteria - Wed. May 3rd; 6:30 PM;
Apollo Auditorium

Math Textbook Forum - Thurs. May 4th; 6:30-8 PM;
Arcadia MS Cafeteria
*** NOTE *** RSVP NOT Required

Debating Some of the Issues ...

Point ...

Mona said...
Hi all,I wanted to share a few observations that outrage me: 1). Lets keep the momentum moving forward! Is on Carla’s profile on Now the Boily Bunch is using it. They were against the current BOE and using the saying Get Back to Learning. Now it is Lets keep the momentum moving forward!2). Until the announcement of their candidacy Hauer and Boily did not go to BOE meetings. They could not be bothered by us commoners, so they had no clue to what the real issues were. They have their own list of priorities that they wont admit to. It is no secret they have changed strategy and have started taking the issues that Carla and Christine are running on. At the Post interview Boily made no bones about saying Pat Tydings started to get him up to speed. 3). I saw for myself how Hauer and Julia tried to keep Meg on as super, with the SOS meeting. Meg, who Julia herself could not get to have a meeting with me. Meg, the woman that loves our children, but could not be bothered by meeting with parents that had issues and concerns. Meg, the woman who could not let go of her own ego and pride for the betterment of the children and district. 4). Not one of the Boily Bunch stepped up to the plate over the last 3 years except to rant, rave, and yell at the currant BOE over the Meg issue. None of them tried to give any help with special ed or any of the other issues this district has faced. WHERE WERE THEY THEN? 5). Why are they not outraged as Carla, Christine, Jim, and the rest of us are about the J-Mac travesty? Greece did such a great service to him. Yeah right, ha ha. This is what Greece did for him. Copy of a letter from Connie Boice to myself:I wanted to share this with you. These are words OUT OF HIS MOTHER'S MOUTH that proves Greece should stop taking ANY credit for this! Look at where their "in district placement and services" got him! 4th grade level!! I believe the law reads that they are supposed to be ready for the world! (Not the exact words but no time to look them up!) Isn't this interesting! They also don't mention that he WASN'T ever a player on the team, but manager on the side lines, and that he was only put in because the team was winning, and that the other team was told to "hang back". I don't mean to sound like a jealous Mom...but c'mon, lets keep it real!! Gotta run. Let me know what you think! Clip From Article:My main worry throughout Jason's life has been getting a financial backup for him," Debbie McElwain said in an interview. "Because he's not going to have a great job, nor is he going to have a college education, nor probably a high school diploma, it'll give him some financial backup and that's all I care about." Before the movie deal came along, she said, one big concern was "what if his parents are dead, how is he going to make it on his own? It's taken some burden off us. "He's only academically a fourth-grade level - people have got to realize this. That's why I keep my eye on him." • • • c Neuroscience to Treatment (CRC Press, 2006)This is why PASSN has been fighting so hard. This is rubbish. Where were they when we were fighting for these kids? Where were they when we were fighting to get the 7640 amendment passed? 6). Mike Sophia is heading up there fund raiser. That is funny Mike is the same person that was a main player in the CQE group. The same person that called me a foot stumper, because I refused to be quieted by his little group of self proclaimed heroes of Walts/ Meg chanters. They did not care about issues then what has changed? In my opinion nothing. They just can’t let the public at large know that they have their own list of priorities to get accomplished!!Carla has brought programs to the district, that she has paid for out of her own pocket. Carla has paid for training of district personnel out of her own pocket. Carla is paying for additional help for her child just to be mainstreamed. It is no thanks to the district that James is doing so as well as he is.Christine is a regular fixture at Long Ridge. Asking questions and fighting for the rights of teachers and students. She has had many discussions with Marcano the Math curriculum person. In my opinion it is just wrong for the Boily Bunch to pretend to care after all the years they DID NOTHING TO HELP. Why cash in on their political names and maiden names now? Would it have anything to do with trying to cover up any tax scandal stuff, or is it just a ploy to get the Rotary/Chamber/ PTA Council group back in the drivers seat again? I don’t know I am just asking Where were they then and Why should we trust them now?Regards,Mona Francis 4/30/2006 6:12 PM

Counterpoint ...

Anonymous said...
Mona,A responses to some of your points2)Although I think attendance at BOE meetings is a good thing for a person who wants to run for the board it is not required nor have all of the current board members had that as part of their record prior to running. The most recent addition to the BOE had/have their agenda of issues and no one seemed to think that was a bad thing this time last year. Not all of their agenda became clear untill after the election.Many, many people listen or watch the meetings and can keep up with what is going on that way. Being on committees is another way to keep up. I know that Mrs. Hauer has been on at least one district committee for several years. We all know how much time Mrs. VanOrman has spent at BOE meetings, community meetings, district committees.I am curious- you are not running for the board so how do you know what was said at the POST interviews. Were you there or is your information second or third hand?3) Mrs. Hauer and Mrs. VanOrman both advocated letting the process work for the sake of the entire communty. I seem to remember both of them saying if, after the investigation, the accusations where true then action againt Dr. Keller-Cogan should be taken. Not the "put back meg at all cost" that you seem to ascribe to them.4) Mrs. VanOrman did more than just step up to the plate. You even note that yourself above -Julia herself could not get Meg to meet with you. But she did try!!5) I am not sure anyone even knew that your friends felt that way about Jason. I have heard him talk about going to MCC in the fall. So find his reading level a sad surprise.6)I am sorry to hear that Mrs. Picarretto(spelling?) had to spend her own money to bring programs to Greece. That is wrong. Many of us have spent our own money to get extra help for our students. It can be a hardship. As for fundrasing. It is widely believed that HMO had much financial support for their run last year. possibly from CARE. They must have. Look at the mailings and number of signs. That was not cheap!And lastly, The Boily Bunch includes people who have been there, have attended meetings, worked in the schools, even taugh.Your friends have also made many contibutions to the district and the community and may make great BOE members. I just felt you were posting limited and sometime misinformation that needed clarification. Anyone reading either of our posts will have to decide for themselves. 4/30/2006 10:32 PM